Friday, May 29, 2020

Colonization and Civilization on a Desert Island through Robinson Crusoe’s Eyes - Literature Essay Samples

Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is an interesting and attention grabbing work of the 17th century based on the issues it depicts, especially the presence of colonization. During this time empiricism permeated literature. This novel shows the happenings in Crusoe’s life as they are real, therefore the reader can feel as he or she is actually involved in them and those are not only delivered through the book. Robinson is the main character, who lives for one aim: sailing. Although he wants to gain newer and newer experiences, he cannot deny his cultural roots in connection with the English society’s point of view about civilization and colonization. During reading, the reader is able to realize the attempts of the protagonist to civilize and to colonize, starting with the domestication of animals, proving it through all of his relationships appeared and maintained in the novel. It is interesting to examine these previously mentioned phenomena of civilization and col onization as a lot of people would see an opposition between them. That is why I am going to analyze the novel based on the process and manifestations of colonization (the process of occupying territories for one’s own nation, strongly connected to imperialism) that Crusoe provides us; also paying attention to whether the civilizing process stands strictly in connection with colonization or not. First of all, the most conspicuous issue is the attempt of domestication. Whether it is the question of tradition or the society someone comes from, it represents civilization. Thus domestication could be understood as the first step that leads to where civilization bounds with colonization. Therefore, even if there is a kind of opposition between civilizing and colonizing, they overlap. Especially, if we consider the differences based on skin color, not to mention the presence of unjust slavery. These are strongly connected to how Crusoe embodies the traditional view of superiority based on his own society. Furthermore, civilization can lead to colonization. These two phenomena do not just overlap, but one follows the other based on historical knowledge and based on Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. Throughout history it was proven that white societies, like England started to enforce their own will and â€Å"civilize† the less developed ones. According to McInelly, Crusoe also realizes his power on the island: â€Å"the colonial setting facilitates Crusoe’s individualism as he comes to recognize the unique place he occupies as a British Protestant in a world in which he is surrounded by religious and cultural Others† (McInelly 2). This demonstrates the real presence of superiority and inferiority between different nations. People from different ethnic groups get different treatment from the others. The aim is colonization and the cover story is bringing civilization. Crusoe is part of the developed culture that accepts slavery. Thus, his identity and indivi dualism as a definition are mixed with his society’s perspective. Not to mention that Crusoe appears here as a prototype of English colonizer. Moreover, what are really important in connection with this viewpoint about the novel are the opposites: society against individualism, identity against slavery and civilization against colonization. Interpreting the first two pairs, they can stand closely in connection with materialism, mercantilism and religion. Society is the one thing that defines traditions and people’s roles. How society thinks about civilizing the â€Å"savages† and colonizing other parts of the world partly defines how individuals do the same. Another good question is the role of money within the novel. What is interesting is that critics do not seem to care about it or do not think about the definition of mercantilism, though these are fascinating features appearing throughout the whole book. The very fact that Crusoe cares about money reflects on how that era cared about it. Although the protagonist realizes that money has no value on a deserted island, in the back of his mind he also knows th at in England and in any market money is a useful resource: â€Å"upon Second Thoughts, I took it away† (Defoe qtd in Spielman 72). The other important issue in the novel is religion. Crusoe prays a lot of times during the novel, but whether he is religious in any ways or not, stays unclear. He turns to God when he needs something: â€Å"This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years† (Defoe 106). Moving back to the question of religion, sometimes it looks like Crusoe tries to act as a God. It can partly refer to the little pieces of colonization that affected Crusoe’s dreamland as well. For example, in the case when Crusoe gives a name to Friday we see his superiority and power over the black person: â€Å"Crusoe transforms his island world through the agency of language, and particularlythrough a creative process of naming† (Novak qtd. in McInelly 5). Not to mention how politics affected Crusoe’s way of thinking after he recognized that on the island he could actually act like a king. His every move is concerned with the aftermath of the political institution created on the basis of his homeland. Furthermore, in a way Crusoe’s own development is also based on colonization. He recognizes his own self-importance and that is the end-product of English social norms at that time. Therefore, culture and society are also key terms here. The habits he inherits from his own nation, neither the presence of colonialism and imperialism cannot be denied. England as an empire was not famous for its purpose of welcoming or getting to know new cultures, it wanted to conquer. Going to the depth of this phenomenon, another interesting fact is that Crusoe left England to avoid the affects of Puritanism, yet on the island he creates almost the exact same features that he originally ran away from. He easily becomes the ruler of the uninhabited land by showing his strength, cleverness, wisdom and all the â€Å"values† he brought with himself from his mother nation. The above mentioned pair of society and individualism stands in connection with the British identity and the question of slavery as well as with the affects of colonization: The entire process of isolating the personal, religious, political, and even economic facets of a fictional subject’s life within an imagined colonial setting contributed directly to the features we know associate with the early novel: attention to individual character and particulars of day-to-day experience, and an intense exploration of the dynamics of selfhood. (McInelly 19) According to this quotation the reader can clearly see that selfhood is also represented by traditions and the characteristics of colonization. What is even more important is that though the protagonist represents one side of the coin only, both the colonized and the colonizer’s points of view are depicted. Also, to add another new point to this topic based on the previously mentioned factors, questioning the impact and the manifestations of colonization is also important. According to the novel, the very first act of civilizing some aspects of the land leads to an unavoidable chain reaction to start. People can argue whether the background massage of colonizing comes with advantages or disadvantages, the book somehow seems to lack or even neglect freedom in any way of its meaning. Considering the above mentioned phenomena, the naming process of Friday, the question of religion, the bringing of civilization through domestication and the presence of other society-related phenomena like carpentry; the reader can realize that these are all acts resulting in becoming aspects of the colonizing process itself. What is more, considering the beginning of the novel escapism on its individual form and the struggle with society appears. Of course, here these are totally different from their original meanings. The way Crusoe escapes from his family and from society brings up a goal: sailing and adventure. Later on, he is struggling with the requirements of his society; the result is actually the following: he colonizes not just the land, but also people and their identities. How he thinks about the differences between white and native or colonizer and colonized is based on owning and wanting to own or gain, whether it is land or its inhabitants is of no great importance: â€Å"I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the savages† (Defoe 169). This refers to the idea that savages need to be civilized, even controlled by those who are superior. Crusoe also renames things; he calls the tent and the cave as cellar and house. It represents his property, also civilization and dem onstrates the work of human hands. From the cave he actually ends up with a kingdom. Crusoe’s journal also adds a few points to the list that describes how he created and developed his own territory and how it became the embodiment of colonization. This is what represents reality; it also refers to movement and an actual plot. It deals with Crusoe’s everyday life and gives the impression of being there, as well. It is divided into sections from which a few can be seen as milestones of successfully creating property. He also writes about Friday, his appearance and behavior. Friday is happy to serve him because this is the form of living he has known in his entire life. Crusoe’s relationships are questionable in a way that he makes differences based on skin colour and origin. Yet, he is capable of change, for example his feelings about Friday. At the beginning he simply asks for companionship, later on he starts to like him: â€Å"I began really to love the creature† (Defoe 216). Even though he is a divisive character, he demonstrates realit y in a form that everybody can understand. Name, freedom and language are key elements of owning one’s identity and Crusoe successfully oppresses these: â€Å"I began toteach him to speak to mehis name should be FridayI likewise thought him to say Master† (Defoe 209). Friday is the one who learns Crusoe’s language. This is also an important aspect of superiority. Crusoe uses the skills of his own society’s developed world, for example guns to overpower people and to force his own will in a way. Another good example is saving the white men with pleasure, in this occasion even killing is acceptable, not just for him but for God as well. He is craving for his fellow mates companionship: â€Å"I never felt so earnest, so strong a desire after the society of my fellow-creatures† (Defoe 192). The major matter is that Crusoe does these things silently, it is not conspicuous, and thus the readers have to search for evidence. All in all, Robinson Crusoe is an ambiguous character who evokes a multitude of topics. Within the novel, imperialism, civilization, colonization and capitalism appear to the reader as issues of all centuries. This is one of the reasons why Robinson Crusoe is a timeless reading. The novel is very reality-based in a sense, also shows culture and cultural expectations and roles based on concrete facts. All of the happenings and relationships in the island are influenced by the huge impact of British colonization. What is probably the most important factor here is not the process of colonization itself, but the impacts it has on different nations. Also the fact that through the novel everybody can replace the main character with himself or herself and explore the travels through an era based on colonization, so that we can realize the truth: a lot of issues are parts of today’s society as well; also the peculiar phenomenon that whenever a civilizing process takes place, there is some kind of a superiority accompanying it. Works Cited Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. London: Penguin Popular Classics, 1994. Print. David Wallace Spielman. â€Å"The Value of Money in Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders, and Roxana.† The Modern Language Review, vol. 107, no. 1, 2012, pp. 70-76. Web. 04 Apr. 2017. Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe. London: Penguin, 1985. Print. McInelly, Brett C. â€Å"Expanding Empires, Expanding Selves: Colonialism, the Novel, and Robinson Crusoe. â€Å"Studies in the Novel†, vol. 35, no. 1, 2003, pp. 1-21. Web. 04 Apr. 2017.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Pestel Analysis China Essay example - 812 Words

PESTEL -Political Recently China has made extraordinary efforts in modernizing legal and economical system aimed to stabilize the growth of the country; however China remains a strictly controlled country, where civil liberties, such as freedom of communication, religion practice and demonstration are severely limited. Major internal problems in China include growing corruption, increasing rural poverty and environmental degradation. China enjoys a strong relationship with the US and other western countries and is likely to increase its influence in the region due to its expanding economy. China has difficult relations with a number of neighbouring countries, such as Japan, Vietnam, North Korea and Tibet; in particular the†¦show more content†¦48% of the population in the target age group are female and although the gender equality has been in the past years a priority for the Chinese government, women still experience a significant status and income disparity. In average women with a university degree can earn as little as 75% of the salary of males with equivalent skills. Finally it should be noted that in China title and status are very important, as well as punctuality both professionally and socially. -Technological China has developed a number of industrial centres where transport, telecommunications and energy infrastructures are widely available. China has also demonstrated a widespread adoption of new technologies, for example mobile phone subscriptions has sharply increased to 461 million, compared to the 368 million land lines (CIA world factbook, 2008, [9]). The number of internet users has also peaked in 2007 to 162 million thanks to a comprehensive broadband network infrastructure based on submarine trunks, fibre-optic cables and satellite links, making China the third largest internet community after the European Union with 247 million and the US with 208 million. Although comparable in terms of population, China has got almost 3 times more internet users than India (60m). -Environmental The environmental policy is becoming one of the most critical issues for theShow MoreRelatedPestel Analysis on China1481 Words   |  6 Pagesfactor: If Nike wants to open international market such as China, the company would get disadvantages because every country will protect and priority for its domestic products. So, the company must find out exactly these requirements that the country require in Nike to overcome these barriers. International trade regulations The trade regulations in China are formulated in accordance with the Foreign Trade Law of the Peoples Republic of China in order to maintain foreign trade order and fair competitionRead MorePestel Analysis China1301 Words   |  6 Pagesstate. The people’s republic of China is a single party state governed by the communist party of China. President : Hu Jintao Prime Minister: Wen Jiabau Independence: 1, October 1949 ( People’s republic of China) Constitutional system China or People Republic of China adopts socialist system or communism in their political system in their decision-making process in governing the country. The country’s sole political party in power is known as communist party of China. The government have the soleRead MorePestel Analysis - Banking in China1112 Words   |  5 PagesUsing PESTEL analysis to understand the macro-environment that impacts the Banking Industry in China. 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Started operating as a traditional computer company, itRead MoreHow Mergers And Acquisition Affect Financial P erformance1170 Words   |  5 Pagesdifferent data btw acquiring firms and target firms to analysis their company value changes before after in disclosure date. Company choiceï ¼Å¡ Cisco system Inc, Lenovo Group Ltd, Microsoft Corporation Objectives The report will focus on analysis what kind of impact will affect companies’ financial performance and its value through companies’ mergers and acquisition in technology industry. This article will use a variety of ways for detailed analysis of how Mergers and acquisition affect financial performance

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Example Outline Sexual Abuse Essay - 1163 Words

Informative Speech Assignment: â€Å"Sexual Abuse† Speech 1000 Welch Example Outline Topic: Sexual abuse is a common and controversial issue that can happen to and or affect all of us. Purpose: To inform the audience about the effects sexual abuse can have, and why it matters. * Introduction I. Attention getter: Do you know a friend or family member who has been sexually abused? Or maybe you have experienced sexual abuse yourself? Are you aware of the psychological and developmental effects it can have on you or someone you may know? Chances are, you don’t—while sexual abuse is common, may people do not speak up, and the problem goes unrecognized. II. Motivation: It is important to know how our experiences affect us†¦show more content†¦(Source 2: expert testimony) (Transition: Now that you have a better understanding, let us examine the devastating effects abuse can have.) II. Victims of sexual abuse can and have experienced psychological and developmental issues. A. Pediatric Emergency Medicine reports that an estimated one in four girls and one in six have experienced some form of sexual abuse by the time they are 18 years old. (Source 3: Statistic) B. Sexual coercion has been linked to suicidal thoughts/attempts, depression, and alcohol use. From experience, I know that being sexually abused is like being the prey, waiting alone in the woods for the hunter to come along. Unfortunately for some, that hunter happens to live under the same roof, and alone in the woods, alone in my room, I felt like prey every time I heard his footsteps walking down the hall. This certainly led to suicidal thoughts, so I can relate to the findings of suicide attempts reporting among assault victims. (Analogy) C. School Psychology Quarterly reports an estimated 7.4% of U.S. students have been sexually assaulted, and those who had been abused reported more suicide attempts then those who have not. (Source 4: Statistic). 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Management Technical Environment

Question: Discuss about the Management Technical Environment. Answer: Blockchain in Business Technology has significantly evolved in various sections, and major sectors that benefit from technological evolution are the financial and retail sectors. Blockchain is a combination of various technologies in one system coordinated to maintain an endless growing list of ordered records. Blockchain are designed to be complex such that they could be used by anyone to write any digital currency and at the same time not under any centralized power/control and they do not accept alteration once recorded. According to Nakamoto (2008), as quoted by Marvin Rob in his article on The Invisible Tech That Is Changing the World, Blockchain is said to be a database that combines different data structures like columns, rows or text to execute a command and uses the digital currencies. He finalizes by foreseeing Blockchain being employed in various aspects like in digital currencies, identity confirmation e.t.c. Iansiti and Lakhani (2007), Number of transactions is recorded between two different parties in a correct manner that is very efficient. Its description is an open distributable ledger that can trigger transactions automatically when programmed. They further illustrate that, businesses can significantly benefit if they choose to use Blockchain as part of running their businesses due to; The establishment and verification of identities and chronicles are enhanced by Blockchain. It's possible to set organizational boundaries, assets, especially data related, and security. Limitations of Block Chain Technology in Businesses The authors, Iansiti and Lakhani (2007), advise that block chain has also some of its limitations and any businesses investing in them should have precautions laid out to avoid running loses. Some of the limitations they mention include; technological barriers, governance, security threats by hackers, societal barriers and even internal organizational barriers. According to Sforzin et al., the Blockchain are not yet mature enough to be used in industries and mentions some of the limitations as being; privacy is not enhanced due to Blockchain depending on the already existing transactions and order of executions. They also mention the decentralization of block chain governance is not in a democratic set up hence not applicable to many businesses. Factors to Consider Before using Blockchain According to Iansiti and Lakhani (2007), various factors should be laid in place to ensure that the adoption and use of block chains in businesses are not to be regretted. These factors include the following; The use of transmission control/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) should be put in place to use the internet in connection with other software. The (TCP/IP) enables the establishment of messaging, robust data, voice and video connections which are secure and scaled up. The other benefits are it has allowed expansion of businesses that are internet driven and platform based i.e. Amazon online store. The gradual process of adoption of the Blockchain using some criteria/framework is the next factor to consider. These structures are embedded in four stages; Single use of the Blockchain, like in emails. It's possible to use both online currency and TCP/IP at this juncture. Is the localization stage, is where high novelty innovations with a limited number of users are engaged in value creation. Substitution framework, it aims in the replacement of the fundamental sales processes. Transformation framework, its successful if the first three are successful. It overhauls the whole system in social, economic and political systems and the implications are fascinating. References Iansiti, M. and Lakhani, K. (2007). The Truth About Block Chain. Harvard Business Review. Marvin, R. Block Chain:The Invisible Tech That Is Changing theWorld. Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A Peer to Peer Electronic Cash System Sforzin, A., Karame, G., Fedorov, S. and Li, W. Towards Scalable and Private Industrial Block chains

Friday, April 17, 2020

Should The Developed North Increase Aid To The Less Developed South E

Should The Developed North Increase Aid To The Less Developed South? Should The Developed North Increase Aid to the Less Developed South? The question at hand is not whether aid from the developed north should be given at all, but whether or not it should be increased to help ease the suffering of the developing countries in the south. Every country, whether rich or poor, should have compassion for the suffering. However, it is not the duty of the developed north to completely take care of every developing country. In the present, there are serious problems that need to be addressed dealing with how aid is given out: misuse of funds by governments, the corruption it creates, economies it destroys, lack of votes it buys at the United Nations, and finally the question of who has priority. Therefore, until these issues are dealt with in the near future, aid should be kept to a minimum. ? Response to Readings in Taking Sides James P. Grant, in his article favoring the increase of foreign aid to the developing south, notes that poverty in this world is a large problem that has continued to rise for years. It wasn?t until the 1960?s that the mobilization of medical help, better sanitation, clean water, money spent on education, and other measures began to save lives and make the quality of living better for millions. However, he also states that even though aid is being provided, it is still not enough, and leaders like the United States and the European community should take the initiative to donate and assist more each year just like the Japanese have done. The only problem with this statement is that both the European community and the United States are pressed for money. The European countries, especially leaders like Great Britain and Germany, have devoted much of their aid budgets towards helping other countries within their system grow stronger before the European system goes completely into full fo rce. Whereas the United States? budget deficit forces many government agencies, including the Agency for International Development(AID), to lose funding. Furthermore there is no reason to send billions of dollars over seas when northern countries like the United States and Great Britain currently face the highest levels of child poverty that either country has seen in over 25 years. In addition to poverty, other domestic problems such as rape, robberies, and murders in this country still exist. Until domestic issues are solved, any future increase in foreign aid should also be kept to a minimum. The purpose of a nation is to look after its own citizens to insure that they are free from harm, stay healthy, receive public utilities, and become educated. If protecting a nations? people require its country, for example, to send aid to an African country to help prevent the spread of HIV, then foreign aid is acceptable. However, if there is no immediate threat to US security, then aid and foreign involvement should be kept to a minimum. In other words, aid should only be offered when a clear gain for that country can be achieved. There are not enough resources to save the destitute and sick of the world out of compassion alone. Special interest groups such as Peace Corps, private donations, and volunteers serve the purpose of helping others. It is all right for a country to help provide these groups with the necessary resources required to carry out their missions safely; however, it is not the duty of a country to take care of all nations alone. As advocates of the no side, the editors of The Economist firmly believe that the north should not increase aid to the developing south on account of past misuse, unfair distribution of aid among countries, and lack of results. Furthermore, foreign aid does more than just ease the suffering of the impoverished. Health care expenditures account for only 2% of the entire aid budget as a study by the World Bank in 1988 showed. The rest of the 98% goes toward the financing of military campaigns to restore peace and help set up and keep new and existing democracies running, saving the environment, supporting economic development, and lastly to control population

Friday, March 13, 2020

James Polk 11th President Facts

James Polk 11th President Facts James K. Polk (1795-1849) served as Americas eleventh president. He was known as the dark horse as he was not expected to beat his opponent, Henry Clay. He served as president during a period of manifest destiny, overseeing the Mexican War and the entry of Texas as a state.   ere is a quick list of fast facts for James Polk. For more in depth information, you can also read the James Polk Biography.   Birth: November 2, 1795 Death: June 15, 1849 Term of Office: March 4, 1845-March 3, 1849 Number of Terms Elected: 1 Term First Lady: Sarah Childress James Polk Quote: No President who performs his duties faithfully and conscientiously can have any leisure.Additional James Polk Quotes Major Events While in Office: Oregon Treaty (1846) Mexican War (1846-1848) States Entering Union While in Office: Texas (1845) Iowa (1846)Wisconsin (1848) Significance:   James K. Polk increased the size of the US more than any other president other that Thomas Jefferson due to the acquisition of New Mexico and California after the   Mexican-American War. He also completed a treaty with England that resulted in the US gaining the  Oregon Territory. He was an  effective chief executive during the  Mexican-American War. Historians consider him to be the best one-term president. Related James Polk Resources: These additional resources on James Polk can provide you with further information about the president and his times. James Polk BiographyTake a more in depth look at the Eleventh president of the United States through this biography. Youll learn about his childhood, family, early career, and the major events of his administration. Chart of Presidents and Vice PresidentsThis informative chart gives quick reference information on the Presidents, Vice-Presidents, their terms of office and their political parties. Other Presidential Fast Facts: John TylerZachary TaylorList of American Presidents

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Water resources Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Water resources - Essay Example The ever-growing population also plays a significant role in promoting the problem whereby, groundwater is sometimes polluted from sources on the surface (Franks, 2003). Human actions remain the biggest problem to water resources in three different ways: misuse, population growth and inequitable access. A more integrated and wider approach to water issues and policies remains important since water is a necessary resource. Lakes, rainwater, groundwater and even polluted water all come from a similar source. This means that global, national and the local actions towards solving the problem will be necessary and interdependent. Use of water in one system tends to alter water resources base or affect its users in different parts. In this case, fragmented bureaucracies must come up with coordinated decisions that reflect on individual agencies and responsibilities that are interpedently work together towards solving the problem (Franks, 2003). To help in resolving issues related to water resources, policy-makers must always be ready to review and explain problems and conditions related to the water sector. In this integrated approach, water managers must always understand the water cycle including ecosystem interactions, rainfall distribution and the natural environment (Franks, 2003). They must also be familiar with the diverse inter sectorial needs for water resources development. Franks, S. (2003). Water availability and global change. International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, General assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) & International symposium. Wallingford: IAHS